Japanese Yen

Japanese Yen

The yen (Japanese: 円, Hepburn: en, symbol: ¥; code: JPY; also abbreviated as JP¥) is the official currency of Japan. It is the third most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar and the euro. It is also widely used as a reserve currency after the U.S. dollar, the euro, and the pound sterling. The concept of the yen was a component of the Meiji government's modernization program of Japan's economy; which postulated the pursuit of a uniform currency throughout the country modeled after the European decimal currency system. Before the Meiji Restoration, Japan's feudal fiefs all issued their own money, hansatsu, in an array of incompatible denominations. The New Currency Act of 1871 did away with these and established the yen, which was defined as 1.5 g (0.048 troy ounces) of gold, or 24.26 g (0.780 troy ounces) of silver, as the new decimal currency. The former han (fiefs) became prefectures and their mints private chartered banks, which initially retained the right to print money. To bring an end to this situation the Bank of Japan was founded in 1882 and given a monopoly on controlling the money supply.Following World War II the yen lost much of its prewar value. To stabilize the Japanese economy the exchange rate of the yen was fixed at ¥360 per $1 as part of the Bretton Woods system. When that system was abandoned in 1971, the yen became undervalued and was allowed to float. The yen had appreciated to a peak of ¥271 per $1 in 1973, then underwent periods of depreciation and appreciation due to the 1973 oil crisis, arriving at a value of ¥227 per $1 by 1980. Since 1973, the Japanese government has maintained a policy of currency intervention, and the yen is therefore under a "dirty float" regime. This intervention continues to this day. The Japanese government focuses on a competitive export market, and tries to ensure a low yen value through a trade surplus. The Plaza Accord of 1985 temporarily changed this situation from its average of ¥239 per US$1 in 1985 to ¥128 in 1988 and led to a peak value of ¥80 against the U.S. dollar in 1995, effectively increasing the value of Japan’s GDP to almost that of the United States. Since that time, however, the yen has greatly decreased in value. The Bank of Japan maintains a policy of zero to near-zero interest rates and the Japanese government has an extreme anti-inflation policy.

Turkmenistani Manat

Turkmenistani Manat

The manat is the currency of Turkmenistan. It was introduced on 1 November 1993, replacing the Russian ruble at a rate of 1 manat = 500 rubles. The ISO 4217 code was TMM, and the manat was subdivided into 100 tenge. The abbreviation m is sometimes used, e.g., 25 000 m is twenty-five thousand manat. On January 1, 2009, the new manat was introduced with ISO 4217 code TMT at the rate of 5000 old manat to 1 new manat.

32 Japanese Yen to Turkmenistani Manat exchange rates chart

32 JPY to TMT exchange rates graph
32 JPY to TMT Spot rate – This is known more formally as the ‘interbank’ rate. It is the rate banks or large financial institutions charge each other when trading significant amounts of foreign currency. In the business, this is sometimes referred to as a ‘spot rate’. It is not the tourist rate and you cannot buy currency at this rate, as you are buying relatively small amounts of foreign currency. In everyday life it is the same as the difference between wholesale and retail prices. The rates shown in financial newspapers and in broadcast media are usually the interbank rates.

32 JPY to TMT exchange rates table

Exchange JPY to TMT
32 Japanese Yen = 1.024 Turkmenistani Manat
64 Japanese Yen = 2.049 Turkmenistani Manat
160 Japanese Yen = 5.122 Turkmenistani Manat
320 Japanese Yen = 10.243 Turkmenistani Manat
Exchange Japanese Yen to Turkmenistani Manat
32 Japanese Yen to Turkmenistani Manat Cross rate – This is the rate we give to customers who want to exchange currencies that do not involve the local currency. For example, if you want to exchange Australian dollars into US dollars.

32 JPY to TMT exchange rates news

'Sayonara tax': Japan to charge international visitors depature fee

Leaving Japan will get a little more expensive for travellers starting this week.

12 days conditional negative
NZ dollar firms as trade talks, FOMC support global outlook - sharechat.co.nz

The New Zealand dollar rose as minutes from the Federal Reserve’s last rate-setting meeting and the conclusion of US-China trade talks left investors more confident about the global growth outlook

13 days conditional positive
Turkmenistan: Fast and furious. And broke | Eurasianet

This week in our Turkmenistan column, the president plays hard as the national currency goes soft

2 months subjunctive neutral
Turkmenistan finds a novel solution to mass emigration

CITIZENS of Turkmenistan are definitely allowed to leave the country, its immigration service insisted in a statement in mid-April. The declaration came in response to reports that men under the age of 30 were being prevented from boarding international flights.

2 months conditional negative

32 JPY to TMT currency converter